Where are the fungal pathogens that cause pneumonia most prevalent in the US?

Updated: Jun 21, 2019
  • Author: Romeo A Mandanas, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Guy W Soo Hoo, MD, MPH  more...
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Answer

Answer

Endemic fungi are prevalent in the Mississippi River Valley and the Ohio River Valley (eg, H capsulatum, B dermatitidis), the southwestern United States, and northwestern Mexico (eg, C immitis).

The environmental niche for H capsulatum is soil enriched by nitrogen contained in birds' and bats' droppings, [5] whereas B dermatitidis is found in the soil and decaying wood, especially in waterways. [5]

Coccidioides species is found in alkaline, highly salinic, sandy soils and extreme temperatures.

Sporotrichosis has been described worldwide; prevalence is higher in tropical and temperate zones. Infection generally occurs following traumatic inoculation with soil, plants, and organic matter contaminated with the fungus. However, it occasionally may be inhaled, causing pneumonitis that often cavitates. [10]


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