Which medical conditions are risk factors for opportunistic fungal pneumonia?

Updated: Jun 21, 2019
  • Author: Romeo A Mandanas, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Guy W Soo Hoo, MD, MPH  more...
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Answer

Answer

Conditions that predispose patients to any of the opportunistic fungal pathogens are as follows:

  • Acute leukemia or lymphoma during myeloablative chemotherapy

  • Bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation

  • Solid organ transplantation on immunosuppressive treatment

  • Prolonged corticosteroid therapy

  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

  • Prolonged neutropenia from various causes

  • Congenital immune deficiency syndromes

  • Postsplenectomy state

  • Genetic predisposition

With regard to predisposition through stem cell transplants, certain toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms (eg, TLR 4 haplotype S4) in an unrelated stem cell donor can increase the risk of invasive aspergillosis in the transplant recipient. [8] Similarly, TLR1 and TLR6 polymorphisms in the recipient have been associated with susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. [9]


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