Which medications in the drug class Fluoroquinolones are used in the treatment of Bacterial Pneumonia?

Updated: Sep 30, 2020
  • Author: Justina Gamache, MD; Chief Editor: Guy W Soo Hoo, MD, MPH  more...
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Answer

Fluoroquinolones

Delafloxacin (Baxdela)

Delafloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic available as in intravenous and oral preparations that allow intravenous-to-oral switch. It is indicated for treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) caused by susceptible bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, S aureus (methicillin-susceptible [MSSA] isolates only), K pneumoniae, E coli, P aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, H parainfluenzae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Levofloxacin (Levaquin)

Levofloxacin is rapidly becoming a popular choice in pneumonia; this agent is a fluoroquinolone used to treat CAP caused by S aureus, S pneumoniae (including penicillin-resistant strains), H influenzae, H parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, M catarrhalis, C pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, or M pneumoniae. Fluoroquinolones should be used empirically in patients likely to develop exacerbation due to resistant organisms to other antibiotics.

Levofloxacin is the L stereoisomer of the D/L parent compound ofloxacin, the D form being inactive. It has good monotherapy with extended coverage against Pseudomonas species and excellent activity against pneumococcus. Levofloxacin acts by inhibition of DNA gyrase activity. The oral form has a bioavailability that is reportedly 99%.

The 750-mg dose is as well tolerated as the 500-mg dose, and it is more effective. Other fluoroquinolones with activity against S pneumoniae may be useful and include moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and gemifloxacin

Moxifloxacin (Avelox)

Moxifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone that inhibits the A subunits of DNA gyrase, resulting in inhibition of bacterial DNA replication and transcription. Use caution in prolonged therapy, and perform periodic evaluations of organ system functions (eg, renal, hepatic, hematopoietic). Note that superinfections may occur with prolonged or repeated antibiotic therapy, and fluoroquinolones have induced seizures in patients with CNS disorders as well as caused tendinitis or tendon rupture.

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)

Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone that inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis and, consequently, growth, by inhibiting DNA gyrase and topoisomerases, which are required for the replication, transcription, and translation of genetic material. Quinolones have broad activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic organisms but no activity against anaerobes. Continue ciprofloxacin treatment for at least 2 days (7-14 d typical) after the patient's signs and symptoms have disappeared.


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