Which medications in the drug class Monobactams are used in the treatment of Bacterial Pneumonia?

Updated: Sep 30, 2020
  • Author: Justina Gamache, MD; Chief Editor: Guy W Soo Hoo, MD, MPH  more...
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Answer

Monobactams

Aztreonam (Azactam)

Aztreonam is a monobactam, not a beta-lactam, antibiotic that inhibits cell wall synthesis during bacterial growth. This agent has activity against gram-negative bacilli but very limited gram-positive activity, and it is not useful for anaerobes. Aztreonam lacks cross-sensitivity with beta-lactam antibiotics; it may be used in patients allergic to penicillins or cephalosporins.

The duration of aztreonam therapy depends on the severity of the infection and is continued for at least 48 hours after the patient is asymptomatic or evidence of bacterial eradication is obtained. Doses smaller than indicated should not be used.

Transient or persistent renal insufficiency may prolong serum levels. After an initial loading dose of 1 or 2 g, reduce the dose by half for an estimated creatinine clearance (CrCl) rate of 10-30 mL/min/1.73 m2. When only serum creatinine concentration is available, the following formula (based on sex, weight, and age) can approximate CrCl. Serum creatinine should represent a steady state of renal function.

Males: CrCl = [(weight in kg)(140 - age)] divided by (72 X serum creatinine in mg/dL)

Females: 0.85 X above value

In patients with severe renal failure (CrCl < 10 mL/min/1.73 m2) and those supported by hemodialysis, a usual dose of 500 mg, 1 g, or 2 g, is given initially.

The maintenance dose is one fourth of the usual initial dose given at a usual fixed interval of 6, 8, or 12 hours.

For serious or life-threatening infections, supplement the maintenance doses with one eighth of the initial dose after each hemodialysis session.

Elderly persons may have diminished renal function. Renal status is a major determinant of dosage in these patients. Serum creatinine may not be an accurate determinant of renal status. Therefore, as with all antibiotics eliminated by the kidneys, obtain estimates of the CrCl, and make appropriate dosage modifications. Data are insufficient regarding intramuscular (IM) administration to pediatric patients or dosing in pediatric patients with renal impairment. Aztreonam is administered IV only to pediatric patients with normal renal function.


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