What is hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), and what are the risk factors?

Updated: Sep 30, 2020
  • Author: Justina Gamache, MD; Chief Editor: Guy W Soo Hoo, MD, MPH  more...
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HAP is defined as pneumonia that develops at least 48 hours after admission to a hospital and is characterized by increased risk of exposure to MDR organisms, [6] as well as gram-negative organisms. [15] Risk factors for exposure to such organisms in HAP include the following [6] :

  • Antibiotic therapy within 90 days of the hospital-acquired infection

  • Current length of hospitalization of five days or more

  • High frequency of antibiotic resistance in the local community or within the specific hospital unit

  • Immunosuppressive disease or therapy

  • Presence of HCAP risk factors for exposure to MDR bacteria

Common mechanisms for the acquisition of pneumonia include ventilator use and aspiration.

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