What is involved in the long-term monitoring of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD)?

Updated: Sep 11, 2020
  • Author: Dora E Izaguirre Anariba, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: John J Oppenheimer, MD  more...
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Measuring pulmonary function yearly permits better counseling and planning for interventions such as initiating replacement therapy (if not already started) or transplantation preparation.

Repeat influenza vaccination yearly.

Repeat pneumococcal vaccination every 5 years.

For all individuals with the PiZZ genotype, periodic evaluations of liver function are recommended.

For all persons with established liver disease, ultrasound monitoring every 6-12 months is recommended in order to detect early fibrotic changes and hepatocellular carcinoma.

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