What are the age-related demographics of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD)?

Updated: Sep 11, 2020
  • Author: Dora E Izaguirre Anariba, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: John J Oppenheimer, MD  more...
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Answer

The enzyme deficiency is congenital and has a bimodal distribution with respect to symptoms. It can be seen in neonates as a cause of neonatal jaundice and hepatitis. It can present in infants as cholestatic jaundice and in children as hepatic cirrhosis or liver failure. AATD is also the leading underlying condition requiring liver transplantation in children.

In adults, AATD leads to chronic liver disease in the fifth decade of life. As a cause of emphysema, it is seen in nonsmokers most commonly in the fifth decade of life and during the fourth decade of life in smokers.


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