What is the clinical history characteristic of withdrawal in opioid abuse?

Updated: Jun 21, 2018
  • Author: David W Dixon, DO; Chief Editor: Glen L Xiong, MD  more...
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Answer

Continuous administration of opioids leads to physical dependence, the emergence of withdrawal symptoms during abstinence. Physical dependence is expected after 2-10 days of continuous use when the drug is stopped abruptly. The onset and duration of withdrawal varies with the drug used. For example, meperidine withdrawal symptoms peak in 8-12 hours and last for 4-5 days. Heroin withdrawal symptoms usually peak within 36-72 hours and may last for 7-14 days. Symptoms of opioid withdrawal include the following:

  • Autonomic symptoms - Diarrhea, rhinorrhea, diaphoresis, lacrimation, shivering, nausea, emesis, piloerection (the phrase stopping "cold turkey" refers to piloerection, or "gooseflesh")

  • Central nervous system arousal - Sleeplessness, restlessness, tremors

  • Pain - Abdominal cramping, bone pains, and diffuse muscle aching

  • Craving - For the medication


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