When is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) indicated for the treatment of bipolar affective disorder (manic-depressive illness)?

Updated: May 30, 2019
  • Author: Stephen Soreff, MD; Chief Editor: Glen L Xiong, MD  more...
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Often, the severity of the patient’s symptoms, the lack of response to medications, or the presence of contraindications to certain medications necessitates the use of ECT. This treatment modality has proven to be highly effective in the treatment of acute mania.

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