How are major depressive episodes diagnosed in bipolar affective disorder (manic-depressive illness)?

Updated: May 30, 2019
  • Author: Stephen Soreff, MD; Chief Editor: Glen L Xiong, MD  more...
  • Print

Major depressive episodes are characterized as, for the same 2 weeks, the person experiences 5 or more of the following symptoms, with at least 1 of the symptoms being either a depressed mood or characterized by a loss of pleasure or interest: [2]

  • Depressed mood

  • Markedly diminished pleasure or interest in nearly all activities

  • Significant weight loss or gain or significant loss or increase in appetite

  • Hypersomnia or insomnia

  • Psychomotor retardation or agitation

  • Loss of energy or fatigue

  • Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt

  • Decreased concentration ability or marked indecisiveness

  • Preoccupation with death or suicide; patient has a plan or has attempted suicide

See Clinical Presentation for more detail.

Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!