How are symptoms of panic disorder elicited in research settings?

Updated: Mar 27, 2019
  • Author: Nita V Bhatt, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: David Bienenfeld, MD  more...
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In experimental settings, symptoms can be elicited in people with panic disorder by hyperventilation, inhalation of carbon dioxide, caffeine consumption, or intravenous infusions of hypertonic sodium lactate or hypertonic saline, [21] cholecystokinin, isoproterenol, flumazenil, [22] or naltrexone. [23] The carbon dioxide inhalation challenge is especially provocative of panic symptoms in smokers. [24]

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