How are symptoms of panic disorder elicited in research settings?

Updated: Mar 27, 2019
  • Author: Nita V Bhatt, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: David Bienenfeld, MD  more...
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Answer

In experimental settings, symptoms can be elicited in people with panic disorder by hyperventilation, inhalation of carbon dioxide, caffeine consumption, or intravenous infusions of hypertonic sodium lactate or hypertonic saline, [21] cholecystokinin, isoproterenol, flumazenil, [22] or naltrexone. [23] The carbon dioxide inhalation challenge is especially provocative of panic symptoms in smokers. [24]


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