How is vasogenic edema managed in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)?

Updated: Jul 28, 2021
  • Author: Jeffrey N Bruce, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert H Engelhard, III, MD, PhD, FACS, FAANS  more...
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Answer

Brain edema can cause focal neurologic deficits and, by increasing intracranial pressure (ICP), produce headache, nausea, and vomiting. Corticosteroids are used to treat patients with symptoms from peritumoral vasogenic edema. Dexamethasone is the steroid of choice for these patients, because of its potency, long half-life, and high brain penetrance. There is no standard regimen for steroid use in this setting, so dosing must be individualized. Most patients respond to low doses of dexamethasone (eg, 4-16 mg/day, given in 1–2 doses). [108, 8, 9, 108]

Because of the many adverse effects of steroids, which worsen with increased dose and duration of treatment, dexamethasone should generally be used at the lowest effective dose and for the shortest period of time. Patients on high-dose steroids should receive concomitant gastric protection (eg, with an H2 antagonist) and those on long-term treatment (≥20 mg prednisone equivalents daily for ≥1 month) should be considered for prophylaxis against osteoporosis and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. [8]

In patients at risk of herniation, ICP can be reduced emergently with mannitol and hypertonic saline, diuretics, and fluid restriction, together with elevation of the head of the bed and hyperventilation. For long-term control of brain edema and treatment of steroid-refractory cases, use of antiangiogenic agents such as bevacizumab has been proposed. [9]


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