What are the goals for surgery in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)?

Updated: Jul 01, 2019
  • Author: Jeffrey N Bruce, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert H Engelhard, III, MD, PhD, FACS, FAANS  more...
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Answer

Because these tumors cannot be cured with surgery, the surgical goals are to establish a pathological diagnosis, relieve mass effect, and, if possible, achieve a gross total resection to facilitate adjuvant therapy. [121] Most glioblastomas recur in and around the original tumor bed, but contralateral and distant recurrences are not uncommon, especially with lesions near the corpus callosum. The indications for reoperation of malignant astrocytomas after initial treatment with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy are not firmly established. Reoperation is generally considered in the face of a life-threatening recurrent mass, particularly if radionecrosis rather than recurrent tumor is suspected as the cause of clinical and radiographic deterioration. PET scans and MR spectroscopy have proven useful in discriminating between these 2 entities.

See the images below.

Axial CT scan without intravenous contrast. This i Axial CT scan without intravenous contrast. This image reveals a large right temporal intraaxial mass (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM]). Extensive surrounding edema is present, as demonstrated by the peritumoral hypodensity, and a moderate right-to-left midline shift can be noted. All of the radiologic studies in this article are of the same patient.
A T1-weighted axial MRI without intravenous contra A T1-weighted axial MRI without intravenous contrast. This image demonstrates a hemorrhagic multicentric tumor (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM]) in the right temporal lobe. Effacement of the ventricular system is present on the right, and mild impingement of the right medial temporal lobe can be observed on the midbrain.
A T1-weighted axial MRI with intravenous contrast. A T1-weighted axial MRI with intravenous contrast. Heterogenous enhancement of the lesion is present within the right temporal lobe. The hypointensity circumscribed within the enhancement is suggestive of necrosis. This radiologic appearance is typical of a multicentric glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
A T1-weighted coronal MRI with intravenous contras A T1-weighted coronal MRI with intravenous contrast. This image demonstrates the lesion (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM]) within the medial temporal lobe and the stereotypical pattern of contrast enhancement.
A T1-weighted sagittal MRI with intravenous contra A T1-weighted sagittal MRI with intravenous contrast in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
A T2-weighted axial MRI. The tumor (glioblastoma m A T2-weighted axial MRI. The tumor (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM]) and surrounding white matter within the right temporal lobe show increased signal intensity compared to a healthy brain, suggesting extensive tumorigenic edema.
A fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) axia A fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) axial MRI. This image is similar to the T2-weighted image and demonstrates extensive edema in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
Histopathologic slide demonstrating a glioblastoma Histopathologic slide demonstrating a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).

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