Which histologic findings are characteristic of insulinoma?

Updated: May 31, 2020
  • Author: Zonera Ashraf Ali, MBBS; Chief Editor: Neetu Radhakrishnan, MD  more...
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Answer

Insulinomas are solitary tumors in 90% of patients. In MEN 1 syndrome, multiple microinsulinomas and macroinsulinomas are found, although hypoglycemia may be caused by a single tumor. The tumors are distributed evenly throughout the pancreas. Tumor size does not relate to the severity of clinical symptoms. Ectopic insulinomas may be found in the ligament of Treitz.

No histologic criteria are available to distinguish benign from malignant insulinomas. Malignant tumors are usually larger (average size 6.2 cm), and a third of them have metastasized to the liver. Insulinoma tumor cells contain less insulin and secretory granules than normal B cells but higher levels of proinsulin. Atypical granules, or even agranular cells, are frequent. The clinical response to diazoxide and somatostatin correlates with the frequency and type of granules.


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