What is the prognosis for granular cell tumors (GCTs)?

Updated: Nov 12, 2020
  • Author: Vladimir O Osipov, MD; Chief Editor: E Jason Abel, MD  more...
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Answer

Prognosis for patients with granular cell tumors is as follows [6] :

  • In benign lesions, recurrence rates are 2-8%, even when the resection margins are deemed free of tumor infiltration; they are around 20% when the margins are positive for tumor.

  • Malignant lesions are aggressive and difficult to eradicate with surgery. Local recurrences are as high as 32%, and metastases were reported in half of the patients. Metastases are usually detected within 2 years.

  • Of patients with malignant granular cell tumors, 39% die of the disease within 3 years after detection of the primary tumor.

  • Ki-67 immunoreactivity of 10% or more tumor cells is an adverse prognostic factor.

The main complication of benign lesions is recurrence. With malignant granular cell tumors, the main complications are recurrence, metastases, or both.


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