What is the pathophysiology of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

Updated: Jun 18, 2020
  • Author: Ponnandai S Somasundar, MD, MPH, FACS; Chief Editor: Neetu Radhakrishnan, MD  more...
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Answer

Several chromosomal rearrangements have been identified in papillary thyroid carcinoma.The first oncogenic events identified in papillary thyroid carcinoma were chromosomal rearrangements involving the rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene, which arises from a paracentric inversion of chromosome 10. [9]  RET fusion proteins (the RET/PTC family) appear to play an oncogenic role in approximately 20% of papillary thyroid carcinomas, with RET/PTC1, RET/PTC2, and RET/PTC3 accounting for most cases. [10, 9] In addition, the NTRK1 and the MET proto-oncogene may be overexpressed and/or amplified. [11, 12]

Evidence also suggests that some molecules that physiologically regulate the growth of the thyrocytes, such as interleukin-1 and interleukin-8, or other cytokines (eg, insulinlike growth factor 1, transforming growth factor beta, epidermal growth factor) could play a role in the pathogenesis of this cancer.


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