How are sacrococcygeal teratomas staged?

Updated: Nov 22, 2019
  • Author: Chad A Hamilton, MD; Chief Editor: Yukio Sonoda, MD  more...
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Sacrococcygeal teratomas are the only teratomas with a widely accepted staging or classification system. In a study of 405 patients treated by members of the Surgical Section of the American Academy of Pediatrics, Altman and associates report the following system: [25]

  • Type I tumors are predominantly external, attached to the coccyx, and may have a small presacral component (45.8%). No metastases were associated with this group.

  • Type II tumors have both an external mass and significant presacral pelvic extension (34%) and have a 6% metastasis rate.

  • Type III tumors are visible externally, but the predominant mass is pelvic and intra-abdominal (8.6%). A 20% rate of metastasis was found in this group.

  • Type IV lesions are not visible externally but are entirely presacral (9.6%) and have an 8% metastasis rate.

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