Which immune modulators are used in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC)?

Updated: Feb 19, 2021
  • Author: Kush Sachdeva, MD; Chief Editor: E Jason Abel, MD  more...
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Renal cell carcinoma is an immunogenic tumor, and spontaneous regressions have been documented. Many immune modulators have been tried, including the following:

  • Interferon (IFN)
  • Interleukin (IL)-2 (aldesleukin [Proleukin])
  • Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination
  • Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells plus IL-2
  • Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
  • Nonmyeloablative allogeneic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation

More recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors have been developed and approved for use in metastatic renal carcinoma. Results with these agents and other molecular-targeted therapies continue to emerge, and these agents are being approved for use.

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