How is renal vein and inferior vena cava involvement managed in renal cell carcinoma (RCC)?

Updated: Feb 19, 2021
  • Author: Kush Sachdeva, MD; Chief Editor: E Jason Abel, MD  more...
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Tumor invasion of the renal vein and inferior vena cava usually occurs as a well-vascularized thrombus covered with its own intimal surface. In patients with renal vein involvement without metastases, radical nephrectomy is performed with early ligation of the renal artery but no manipulation of the renal vein. If the inferior vena cava is involved, then vascular control of the inferior vena cava is obtained both above and below the tumor thrombus, and the thrombus is resected intact, with subsequent closure of the vena cava. Patients with actual invasion of the inferior vena caval wall have poor prognoses, despite aggressive surgical approaches.

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