Which immune modulators are used in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC)?

Updated: Feb 19, 2021
  • Author: Kush Sachdeva, MD; Chief Editor: E Jason Abel, MD  more...
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Renal cell carcinoma is an immunogenic tumor, and spontaneous regressions have been documented. Many immune modulators have been used successfully, including the following:

  • Interferon (IFN) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) 

  • The programmed cell death–1 (PD-1) protein receptor blocker nivolumab and similar agents

  • Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination

  • Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells plus IL-2

  • Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes

  • Nonmyeloablative allogeneic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation

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