What is included in the workup of Kaposi sarcoma (KS)?

Updated: Apr 11, 2019
  • Author: Jessica Katz, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: Edwin Choy, MD, PhD  more...
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Answer

Laboratory studies

CD4 lymphocyte counts and plasma HIV viral-load studies should be performed for patients with HIV infection.

Imaging studies

Chest radiographic findings in patients with KS are variable and nonspecific. They may include any of the following:

  • Diffuse reticulonodular infiltrates
  • Interstitial infiltrates
  • Pleural effusions
  • Hilar or mediastinal lymphadenopathy
  • An isolated pulmonary nodule

Thallium and gallium scans may help differentiate pulmonary KS from infection. Pulmonary KS lesions typically demonstrate intense thallium uptake and no gallium uptake, whereas infection is often gallium avid and thallium negative.

Procedures

  • Punch biopsy
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or colonoscopy

Typical histologic findings in KS include the following:

  • Proliferation of spindle cells
  • Prominent, slitlike vascular spaces
  • Extravasated red blood cells.

See Workup for more detail.


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