What are the treatment guidelines for precancerous conditions associated with gastric cancer?

Updated: Feb 23, 2021
  • Author: Elwyn C Cabebe, MD; Chief Editor: N Joseph Espat, MD, MS, FACS  more...
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In 2012, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, a group of European gastrological societies (the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the European Helicobacter Study Group, the European Society of Pathology and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva), published guidelines for the management for precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach. These guidelines emphasize the increased cancer risk in patients with chronic gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, or dysplasia and focus on treatment and surveillance, but do not address general-population screening for these conditions. [67]

The major recommendations include the following [67] :

  • Magnification chromoendoscopy or narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy with or without magnification may be offered for improved diagnosis of pre-neoplastic gastric conditions/lesions

  • At least four biopsies of the proximal and distal stomach, on the lesser and greater curvature, are needed for adequate assessment of premalignant gastric conditions

  • Patients with extensive atrophy and/or extensive intestinal metaplasia should be offered endoscopic surveillance every 3 years

  • Patients with mild to moderate atrophy/intestinal metaplasia only in antrum do not need follow-up

  • If H pylori infection is present, eradication should be offered to prevent high grade dysplasia or carcinoma

  • The use of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors or dietary supplementation with antioxidants (ascorbic acid and beta-carotene) are not endorsed as approaches to decrease the risk of progression of gastric precancerous lesions

  • Patients with dysplasia without a visible endoscopic lesion should be closely followed up; those with high grade immediately and 6 to 12 months thereafter; those with low grade, within 12 months

  • Those with dysplasia or cancer within an endoscopically visible lesion should undergo staging and resection.

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