What are environmental risk factors for gastric cancer?

Updated: Feb 23, 2021
  • Author: Elwyn C Cabebe, MD; Chief Editor: N Joseph Espat, MD, MS, FACS  more...
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Environmental risk factors for gastric cancer include the following:

  • Smoking
  • Diets high in salt, smoked foods, salted fish and meat, and pickled vegetables [10]
  • Helicobacter pylori infection
  • Previous gastric surgery
  • Pernicious anemia
  • Adenomatous polyps
  • Chronic atrophic gastritis
  • Radiation exposure

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) concludes that evidence suggests smoking prevention or cessation would result in a decreased risk of gastric cancer. However, the impact on risk reduction of dietary changes to decrease salt and increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains is uncertain. [22]

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