What are environmental risk factors for gastric cancer?

Updated: Feb 24, 2020
  • Author: Elwyn C Cabebe, MD; Chief Editor: N Joseph Espat, MD, MS, FACS  more...
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Environmental risk factors for gastric cancer include the following:

  • Smoking

  • Diets high in salt, smoked foods, salted fish and meat, and pickled vegetables [10]

  • Helicobacter pylori infection

  • Previous gastric surgery

  • Pernicious anemia

  • Adenomatous polyps

  • Chronic atrophic gastritis

  • Radiation exposure

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) concludes that evidence suggests smoking prevention or cessation would result in a decreased risk of gastric cancer. However, the impact on risk reduction of dietary changes to decrease salt and increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains is uncertain. [23]

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