Which histologic findings are characteristic of cholangiocarcinoma (CCC)?

Updated: Dec 28, 2019
  • Author: Peter E Darwin, MD; Chief Editor: N Joseph Espat, MD, MS, FACS  more...
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Classic cholangiocarcinomas are well- to moderately-differentiated adenocarcinomas that exhibit glandular or acinar structures; intracytoplasmic mucin is almost always observed. Characteristically, cells are cuboidal or low columnar and resemble biliary epithelium. In more poorly differentiated tumors, solid cords of cells without lumina may be present. Mitotic figures are rare. A dense fibrous stroma is characteristic and may dominate the histologic architecture.

These tumors tend to invade lymphatics, blood vessels, perineural and periductal spaces, and portal tracts. Spread along the lumen of large bile ducts can be seen, especially with hilar tumors.

Tumor cells provoke variable desmoplastic reactions. Cytologic studies on material obtained by any method often yield nondiagnostic results secondary to desmoplastic reaction. For this reason, sensitivity and positive predictive value of brush cytologic studies are rather poor for dominant strictures in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

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