What is the role of infections in the etiology of cholangiocarcinoma (CCC)?

Updated: Dec 28, 2019
  • Author: Peter E Darwin, MD; Chief Editor: N Joseph Espat, MD, MS, FACS  more...
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In Southeast Asia, chronic infections with liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini) have been causally related to cholangiocarcinoma.

Other parasites, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma.

Observations have raised the possibility that bacterial infections with Helicobacter species may play an etiologic role in biliary cancer. [14]

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