What causes cholangiocarcinoma (CCC)?

Updated: Dec 28, 2019
  • Author: Peter E Darwin, MD; Chief Editor: N Joseph Espat, MD, MS, FACS  more...
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The etiology of most bile duct cancers remains undetermined. Autoimmune conditions, especially primary sclerosing cholangitis, appear to increase the risk for cholangiocarcinoma. [13] Currently, gallstones are not believed to increase the risk. Chronic viral hepatitis and cirrhosis also do not appear to be risk factors. 

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