How is angiosarcoma (AS) staged?

Updated: Sep 04, 2018
  • Author: Maria Belén Carsi, MD, PhD, FRCS; Chief Editor: Edwin Choy, MD, PhD  more...
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Answer

The characteristics of the primary tumor (T), spread to regional lymph nodes (N), and the involvement by the tumor of distant lymph nodes and other distant organs and tissues (metastasis, ie, M), form the basis of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging of cancer and are used widely in the United States. [20] The T, N, and M are further divided into Tx, T0, T1, T2, T3, T4; Nx, N0, N1, N2, N3; and Mx, M0, and M1. Tx indicates that the primary tumor cannot be assessed. This indicates carcinoma in situ, and stage IV indicates metastasis. Stages are as follows:

  • Stage I: Localized and resectable tumor is found at one site in the liver and could be treated surgically

  • Stage II: Localized and possibly resectable primary tumor is found at one or more locations in the organ and may be treated surgically. The decision to treat the disease surgically depends on the experience of the physician.

  • Stage III: Advanced cancer has spread to more than one location in the organ and/or to other parts of the body. Frequently these tumors require multiple treatment modalities for maximum benefit. Often, surgical resection does not provide benefit to the patient.

  • Stage IV: Disseminated cancer involves multiple sites throughout the body. Frequently, surgery is not indicated, and chemotherapy is the best option.


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