What are the signs and symptoms of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH)?

Updated: Jun 27, 2018
  • Author: John R Smith, MD, FACOG, FRCSC; Chief Editor: Ronald M Ramus, MD  more...
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Answer

Although the presentation of PPH is most often dramatic, bleeding may be slower and seemingly less noteworthy but may still ultimately result in critical loss and shock. This is more likely to be true of bleeding secondary to retained tissue or trauma. Nursing practices for routine care in the postpartum period should include close observation and documentation of maternal vital signs and condition, vaginal blood loss, and uterine tone and size. The uterus should be periodically massaged to express any clots that have accumulated in the uterus or vagina. [24]

The usual presentation of PPH is one of heavy vaginal bleeding that can quickly lead to signs and symptoms of hypovolemic shock. This rapid blood loss reflects the combination of high uterine blood flow and the most common cause of PPH, ie, uterine atony. Blood loss is usually visible at the introitus, and this is especially true if the placenta has delivered. If the placenta remains in situ, then a significant amount of blood can be retained in the uterus behind a partially separated placenta, the membranes, or both.

Even after placental delivery, blood may collect in an atonic uterus. For this reason, the uterine size and tone should be monitored throughout the third stage and in the so-called fourth stage, following delivery of the placenta. This is accomplished by gently palpating the uterine fundus. If the cause of bleeding is not uterine atony, then blood loss may be slower and clinical signs and symptoms of hypovolemia may develop over a longer time frame. Bleeding from trauma may be concealed in the form of hematomas of the retroperitoneum, broad ligament or lower genital tract, or abdominal cavity. The clinical findings in hypovolemia are listed in Table 2.

Table 2. Clinical Findings in Obstetric Hemorrhage [25] (Open Table in a new window)

Blood Volume Loss

Blood Pressure (systolic)

Symptoms and Signs

Degree of Shock

500-1000 mL (10-15%)

Normal

Palpitations, tachycardia, dizziness

Compensated

1000-1500 mL (15-25%)

Slight fall (80-100 mm Hg)

Weakness, tachycardia, sweating

Mild

1500-2000 mL (25-35%)

Moderate fall (70-80 mm Hg)

Restlessness, pallor, oliguria

Moderate

2000-3000 mL (35-50%)

Marked fall (50-70 mm Hg)

Collapse, air hunger, anuria

Severe

 

Two important facts are worth bearing in mind. The first is that caregivers consistently underestimate visible blood loss by as much as 50%. The volume of any clotted blood represents half of the blood volume required to form the clots. The second is that most women giving birth are healthy and compensate for blood loss very well. This, combined with the fact that the most common birthing position is some variant of semirecumbent with the legs elevated, means that symptoms of hypovolemia may not develop until a large volume of blood has been lost. [26]

Rapid recognition and diagnosis of PPH is essential to successful management. Resuscitative measures and the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause must occur quickly before sequelae of severe hypovolemia develop. The major factor in the adverse outcomes associated with severe hemorrhage is a delay in initiating appropriate management.


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