What is the pathophysiology of dysgerminoma of the ovary?

Updated: Aug 10, 2020
  • Author: Andrew E Green, MD; Chief Editor: Yukio Sonoda, MD  more...
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This is the most common malignant GCT and represents 3-5% of all ovarian malignancies. Ninety percent occur in people younger than 30 years, and 75% occur in the second and third decades, with a median age of 22 years.

Dysgerminomas are bilateral in 10-35% of cases. Five percent occur in phenotypic females with abnormal gonads. They may have a 46XY karyotype with pure gonadal dysgenesis or androgen insensitivity syndrome, or, they may have a 45X, 46XY karyotype with mixed gonadal dysgenesis. Dysgerminomas may be large and usually are solid, with a smooth external surface and a fleshy pink-tan color inside. The majority are confined to the ovary at diagnosis, but approximately 25% of otherwise stage I dysgerminomas have lymph node metastasis.

For more information, see Ovarian Dysgerminomas.

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