What should be included in the pelvic exam for menorrhagia?

Updated: Dec 20, 2018
  • Author: Julia A Shaw, MD, MBA, FACOG; Chief Editor: Michel E Rivlin, MD  more...
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Answer

Pelvic examination should evaluate for the presence of external genital lesions.

Vaginal/cervical discharge: Look for a copious discharge indicating infection, and confirm the actual site of the bleeding (if present). Assess as follows:

  • Uterine size, shape, and contour: An enlarged irregularly shaped uterus suggests fibroids if the patient is aged 30-50 years. An enlarged uniformly shaped uterus in a postmenopausal patient with bleeding suggests endometrial cancer until proven otherwise.

  • Cervical motion tenderness: This is a common symptom of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) that usually is caused by gonorrhea or chlamydia. This is an important diagnosis to exclude, especially in young nulliparous women, because it can lead to pelvic adhesions and infertility.

  • Adnexal tenderness or masses: This is especially concerning in patients older than 40 years. Ovarian cancer may present with intermenstrual bleeding as its only symptom. Rare but deadly ovarian tumors also can present in teenage girls. Any suspicion of an adnexal mass should prompt an immediate pelvic ultrasound.


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