How does smoking affect a women’s risk for dysmenorrhea?

Updated: Oct 22, 2018
  • Author: Karim Anton Calis, PharmD, MPH, FASHP, FCCP; Chief Editor: Michel E Rivlin, MD  more...
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Answer

The prevalence of period pain was higher among current smokers (29%) than nonsmokers (23%). Compared with never-smokers, ex-smokers had a 33% increased risk of chronic symptoms (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 - 1.68), while current smokers had a 41% increased risk (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.17 - 1.70). After adjustment for socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and reproductive factors, women who began smoking before or by age 13 had a 59% increased risk (odds ratio, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.18 – 2.15), those who began at ages 14-15 had a 50% increased risk (1.50; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.90), and those who began at age 16 or older had a 26% increased risk (1.26; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.55). [47, 48]


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