What is the role of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in the etiology of dysmenorrhea?

Updated: Sep 23, 2019
  • Author: Karim Anton Calis, PharmD, MPH, FASHP, FCCP; Chief Editor: Michel E Rivlin, MD  more...
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Besides dysmenorrhea, patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (formerly premenstrual syndrome) may have bloating, body aches, migraine headaches, breast tenderness, and emotional complaints. The effects of these symptoms are occasionally debilitating. Aside from possible vaginal brownish discharge or bleeding, pelvic examination findings are normal. It is the emergency physician’s responsibility to ensure adequate analgesia and appropriate follow-up with a gynecologist.

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