What is the role of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) in the etiology of dysmenorrhea?

Updated: Sep 23, 2019
  • Author: Karim Anton Calis, PharmD, MPH, FASHP, FCCP; Chief Editor: Michel E Rivlin, MD  more...
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IUCDs (IUDs) may cause bladder or uterine perforation. The sooner a patient has a uterine perforation after IUCD placement, the more likely it is that she will present with peritoneal signs. [28] Patients with bladder perforation may have recurrent cystitis that is unresponsive to antibiotics. The IUCD must be removed immediately to prevent further damage to the uterine or bladder walls. Abdominal radiographs may reveal the location of an IUCD if the string is not seen in the vaginal vault. A gynecologist should be consulted early. [28]

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