What is the role of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in the etiology of dysmenorrhea?

Updated: Sep 23, 2019
  • Author: Karim Anton Calis, PharmD, MPH, FASHP, FCCP; Chief Editor: Michel E Rivlin, MD  more...
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PID is an infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes, with or without ovarian or parametrial involvement. It is an ascending infection that develops during or immediately after menses; if chronic, it can lead to dysmenorrhea. The most common causative pathogens are Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, though PID also can be caused by other organisms, such as Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobes, and gram-negative rods. [28]

Previously, the diagnosis of PID, though primarily clinical, was based on the presence of 3 major criteria (abdominal pain, adnexal pain, and cervical motion tenderness), and 1 minor criterion (fever, vaginal discharge, leukocytosis, positive cervical cultures, gram-negative stain, intracellular diplococci, or white blood cells [WBCs] on vaginal smear). [28]

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