Which factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of secondary dysmenorrhea?

Updated: Oct 22, 2018
  • Author: Karim Anton Calis, PharmD, MPH, FASHP, FCCP; Chief Editor: Michel E Rivlin, MD  more...
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Answer

Elevated prostaglandins may also play a role in secondary dysmenorrhea, but by definition, concomitant pelvic pathology must be present. A number of factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of secondary dysmenorrhea, including the following:

  • Endometriosis

  • Ovarian cysts and tumors

  • Cervical stenosis or occlusion

  • Fibroids

  • Uterine polyps

  • Intrauterine adhesions

  • Congenital malformations (eg, bicornuate uterus or subseptate uterus)

  • Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD), or intrauterine device (IUD)

  • Transverse vaginal septum

  • Pelvic congestion syndrome

  • Allen-Masters syndrome

Almost any process that can affect the pelvic viscera can produce cyclic pelvic pain. [1]


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