How is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection transmitted?

Updated: Feb 12, 2019
  • Author: Cecelia H Boardman, MD; Chief Editor: Warner K Huh, MD  more...
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Answer

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is usually transmitted sexually, though rare cases have been reported in virgins. [93] Condom use may not prevent transmission. [93, 94] A study in a mouse model by Roberts et al found that a widely used vaginal spermicide, nonoxynol-9, greatly increased susceptibility to HPV infection, whereas carrageenan, a polysaccharide present in some vaginal lubricants, prevented infection. [95]


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