Which lab tests are performed in the evaluation of secondary amenorrhea?

Updated: Jan 08, 2019
  • Author: Kristi A Tough DeSapri, MD; Chief Editor: Richard Scott Lucidi, MD, FACOG  more...
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Answer

Pregnancy is the most common cause of secondary amenorrhea. A pregnancy test (measurement of serum or urinary human chorionic gonadotropin) is recommended as a first step in evaluation of a secondary amenorrhea.

After pregnancy testing, all women who present with 3 months of secondary amenorrhea should have a diagnostic evaluation initiated at that visit. As stated by Speroff et al, "Few problems in gynecologic endocrinology are as challenging or taxing to the clinician as amenorrhea. The clinician must be concerned with an array of potential diseases and disorders involving, in many instances, unfamiliar organ systems, some carrying morbid and even lethal consequences for the patient." [49]

A complete blood cell count, urinalysis, and serum chemistries should be evaluated to help rule out systemic disease. Serum prolactin, FSH, estradiol, and thyrotropin levels should also be measured routinely in the initial evaluation of amenorrhea once pregnancy has been excluded. In the future, determination of anti-müllerian hormone levels may become the preferred initial test for diagnosing PCOS. [50]

Pelvic ultrasonography may identify congenital abnormalities of the uterus, cervix, and vagina, or absence of these organs. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect hypothalamic/pituitary lesions. Hysterosalpingography and hysteroscopy are indicated in cases of possible Asherman syndrome.


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