What are the risk factors for abruptio placentae?

Updated: Nov 30, 2018
  • Author: Shad H Deering, MD; Chief Editor: Carl V Smith, MD  more...
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Answer

Risk factors in abruptio placentae include the following:

  • Maternal hypertension - Most common cause of abruption, occurring in approximately 44% of all cases

  • Maternal trauma (eg, motor vehicle collision [MVC], assaults, falls) - Causes 1.5-9.4% of all cases

  • Cigarette smoking

  • Alcohol consumption

  • Cocaine use

  • Short umbilical cord

  • Sudden decompression of the uterus (eg, premature rupture of membranes, delivery of first twin)

  • Retroplacental fibromyoma

  • Retroplacental bleeding from needle puncture (ie, postamniocentesis)

  • Idiopathic (probable abnormalities of uterine blood vessels and decidua) [4]

  • Previous placental abruption

  • Chorioamnionitis [5]

  • Prolonged rupture of membranes (24 h or longer)

  • Maternal age 35 years or older

  • Maternal age younger than 20 years

  • Male fetal sex

  • Low socioeconomic status

  • Elevated second trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (associated with up to a 10-fold increased risk of abruption)

  • Subchorionic hematoma [6]


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