Which noninjectable coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are under development?

Updated: Feb 28, 2021
  • Author: David J Cennimo, MD, FAAP, FACP, AAHIVS; more...
  • Print
Answer

Answer

Routes of vaccine administration other than injection are also undergoing development.

Table 4. Noninjectable Investigational Vaccines (Open Table in a new window)

Noninjectable Vaccine Comments
hAd5 T-cell  (ImmunityBio and NantKwest) [45]  

Vaccine targets inner nucleocapsid (N) and outer spike (S) protein, which have been engineered to activate T cells and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, respectively. 

Phase 1 trial expanded to include the initial SC prime vaccine with a room-temperature oral or sublingual booster to induce comprehensive immune protection and generate both systemic and mucosal antibodies. 

Intranasal COVID-19 vaccine (AdCOVID; Altimmune, Inc) [49]   Phase 1 dose-ranging study of 1 or 2 intranasal doses initiated in February 2021. The trial will evaluate safety and immunogenicity in up to 180 participants aged 18-55 years. 
ChAdOx1 nCov-19 inhaled (University of Oxford) [50]   Dose-ranging trial for orally inhaled vaccine beginning phase 1 trials in 30 volunteers in Fall 2020.
saRNA inhaled (Imperial College of London) [50]   Dose-ranging trial for orally inhaled vaccine beginning phase 1 trials in 30 volunteers in Fall 2020.
VXA-CoV2-1 oral vaccine (Vaxart) [51]   Recombinant adenovirus vector type 5 (Ad5) expressing coronavirus antigen and a toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist as an adjuvant. Preliminary phase 1 trial (n = 495) showed induced CD8 T-cell responses to the viral spike protein. Neutralizing antibodies not detected in most subjects. Company is evaluating optimal dosing schedule in order to assess efficacy in phase 2 trials. 
PittCoVacc (U of Pittsburgh School of Medicine) [52]   Vaccine candidate using transdermal microneedle for COVID-19. Testing in mice produced antibodies over a 2-week period. Microneedles are made of sugar, making it easy to mass-produce and store without refrigeration.

 


Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!