Which vaccines are being investigated for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention?

Updated: Jun 25, 2021
  • Author: David J Cennimo, MD, FAAP, FACP, FIDSA, AAHIVS; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

The genetic sequence of SARS-CoV-2 was published on January 11, 2020. A rapid emergence of research and collaboration among scientists and biopharmaceutical manufacturers followed. Various methods are used for vaccine discovery and manufacturing. The FDA has granted EUAs for 3 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines since December 2020. Two are mRNA vaccines – BNT-162b2 (Pfizer) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna), whereas the third is a viral vector vaccine – Ad26.COV2.S (Johnson & Johnson).  

In addition to the complexity of finding the most effective vaccine candidates, the production process is also important for manufacturing the vaccine to the scale needed globally. Other variable that increase complexity of distribution include storage requirements (eg, frozen vs refrigerated) and if more than a single injection is required for optimal immunity. Several technological methods (eg, DNA, RNA, inactivated, viral vector, protein subunit) are available for vaccine development. Vaccine attributes (eg, number of doses, speed of development, scalability) depends on the type of technological method employed. For example, the mRNA vaccine platforms allow for rapid development. [297, 297]

 


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