How can community spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) be prevented/minimized?

Updated: Jun 25, 2021
  • Author: David J Cennimo, MD, FAAP, FACP, FIDSA, AAHIVS; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Answer

General measures for prevention of viral respiratory infections include the following: [129]

  • Handwashing with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. An alcohol-based hand sanitizer may be used if soap and water are unavailable.
  • Individuals should avoid touching their eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
  • Individuals should avoid close contact with sick people.
  • Sick people should stay at home (eg, from work, school).
  • Coughs and sneezes should be covered with a tissue, followed by disposal of the tissue in the trash.

Frequently touched objects and surfaces should be cleaned and disinfected regularly.

Preventing/minimizing community spread of COVID-19

The CDC has recommended the below measures to mitigate community spread. [141, 142, 9]

All individuals in areas with prevalent COVID-19 should be vigilant for potential symptoms of infection and should stay home as much as possible, practicing social distancing (maintaining a distance of 6 feet from other persons) when leaving home is necessary.

Persons with an increased risk for infection—(1) individuals who have had close contact with a person with known or suspected COVID-19 or (2) international travelers (including travel on a cruise ship)—should observe increased precautions. These include (1) self-quarantine for at least 2 weeks (14 days) from the time of the last exposure and distancing (6 feet) from other persons at all times and (2) self-monitoring for cough, fever, or dyspnea with temperature checks twice a day.

On April 3, 2020, the CDC issued a recommendation that the general public, even those without symptoms, should begin wearing face coverings in public settings where social-distancing measures are difficult to maintain in order to abate the spread of COVID-19. [9]

Facemasks

In a 2020 study on the efficacy of facemasks in preventing acute respiratory infection, surgical masks worn by patients with such infections (rhinovirus, influenza, seasonal coronavirus [although not SARS-CoV-2 specifically]) were found to reduce the detection of viral RNA in exhaled breaths and coughs. Specifically, surgical facemasks were found to significantly decreased detection of coronavirus RNA in aerosols and influenza virus RNA in respiratory droplets. The detection of coronavirus RNA in respiratory droplets also trended downward. Based on this study, the authors concluded that surgical facemasks could prevent the transmission of human coronaviruses and influenza when worn by symptomatic persons and that this may have implications in controlling the spread of COVID-19. [143]

In a 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis, Smith et al found that N95 respirators did not confer a significant advantage over surgical masks in protecting healthcare workers from transmissible acute respiratory infections. [144]


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