What is included in the preoperative assessment of aortic stenosis (AS) in noncardiac surgery patients?

Updated: Jul 16, 2021
  • Author: Lindsay A (Finger) Raleigh, MD; Chief Editor: Sheela Pai Cole, MD  more...
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Evaluation of AS should begin with a thorough history and physical examination to assess for symptoms related to AS, as well as other cardiac risk factors. Physical examination may reveal the presence of a systolic ejection murmur with the following qualities:

  • Mid to late peak intensity
  • Loudest at the second right intercostal space
  • Radiating to the carotids

Other associated clinical examination findings include the following:

  • Slow rise and reduced peak in the carotid pulse
  • Reduced intensity of the second heart sound (S2)

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