What are the patient-related risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

Updated: Dec 18, 2018
  • Author: Anita Basu, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Answer

Patient-related risk factors are as follows:

  • Age
  • CKD
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Hypertension
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Anemia
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Hypoalbuminemia
  • Renal transplant
  • Hypovolemia and decreased effective circulating volumes - As evidenced by chronic heart failure (CHF), an ejection fraction (EF) of less than 40%, hypotension, and intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) use

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