Which medications in the drug class Diuretics, Osmotic Agents are used in the treatment of Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH)?

Updated: Aug 16, 2019
  • Author: Christie P Thomas, MBBS, FRCP, FASN, FAHA; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Answer

Diuretics, Osmotic Agents

These agents induce diuresis by elevating the osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate, thereby hindering the tubular reabsorption of water. The overall effect is an increase in free water excretion by the kidneys. Concomitantly, Na+ and Cl- excretion also increase, but to a lesser extent than water excretion.

Urea

Urea is used for the treatment of SIADH refractory to or in patients noncompliant with other therapies or when other therapies are not available. Urea is known to promote diuresis. It decreases brain edema, restores medullary tonicity, and induces Na+ retention. Isosmotic concentration of dextrose or invert sugar is coadministered with urea to prevent hemolysis produced by pure solutions of urea.

Mannitol (Osmitrol)

Mannitol promotes a rapid free-water diuresis by elevating the osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate, thereby hindering the tubular reabsorption of water. Concomitantly, Na+ and Cl- excretion also increase but to a lesser extent than water excretion. It is typically used intravenously, as a 15-20% solution.


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