What factors are considered in treatment selection for syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)?

Updated: Aug 16, 2019
  • Author: Christie P Thomas, MBBS, FRCP, FASN, FAHA; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Answer

Treatment of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and the rapidity of correction of hyponatremia depend on the degree of hyponatremia, on whether the patient is symptomatic, and on whether it is acute (< 48 h) or chronic. The urine osmolality and creatinine clearance also must be considered when choosing the type of therapy. If no history is available to determine the duration of hyponatremia and if the patient is asymptomatic, it is reasonable to presume the condition is chronic. Diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause of SIADH is also important.

Extreme hyponatremia and an inappropriate approach to its treatment can both have disastrous consequences; consultation with a nephrologist should be sought early in difficult cases. Correcting hyponatremia too rapidly may result in central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) with permanent neurologic deficits. It is important to remember that even severe hyponatremia can correct rapidly with just fluid restriction if the hyponatremia is associated with absent ADH secretion (eg, psychogenic polydipsia).


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