What are complications of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)?

Updated: Aug 16, 2019
  • Author: Christie P Thomas, MBBS, FRCP, FASN, FAHA; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Answer

The following complications are noted in SIADH:

  • Cerebral edema may be observed when plasma osmolality decreases faster than 10 mOsm/kg/h. This can lead to cerebral herniation.

  • Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema may develop, especially in marathon runners. [15]

  • CPM is the feared complication of excessive, overly rapid correction of hyponatremia. Typical features are disorders of upper motor neurons, including spastic quadriparesis and pseudobulbar palsy, as well as mental disorders ranging from confusion to coma. [16] The risk is increased in persons with hepatic failure, potassium depletion, large burns, and malnutrition. [17] Premenopausal patients undergoing surgery, especially gynecologic or related procedures, and those with serum Na of less than 105 may also have an increased risk. Once CPM occurs as a complication, there is no proven treatment.


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