What causes hyponatremia in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)?

Updated: Aug 16, 2019
  • Author: Christie P Thomas, MBBS, FRCP, FASN, FAHA; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Answer

The key to understanding the pathophysiology, signs, symptoms, and treatment of SIADH is the awareness that the hyponatremia in this syndrome is a result of an excess of water and not a deficiency of Na+.

SIADH consists of hyponatremia, inappropriately elevated urine osmolality (>100 mOsm/kg), and decreased serum osmolality in a euvolemic patient. SIADH should be diagnosed when these findings occur in the setting of otherwise normal cardiac, renal, adrenal, hepatic, and thyroid function; in the absence of diuretic therapy; and in absence of other factors known to stimulate ADH secretion, such as hypotension, severe pain, nausea, and stress.


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