What are the ocular signs and symptoms of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Updated: Dec 24, 2020
  • Author: Biruh T Workeneh, MD, PhD, FASN; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Eye examination may reveal the following:

  • Keratitis, iritis, uveitis, dry conjunctivae: Autoimmune vasculitis
  • Jaundice: Liver diseases
  • Band keratopathy (ie, hypercalcemia): Multiple myeloma
  • Signs of diabetes mellitus
  • Signs of hypertension
  • Atheroemboli: Retinopathy (ie, Hollenhorst plaque in cholesterol microembolism)

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