How is metabolic alkalosis treated?

Updated: Dec 10, 2020
  • Author: Christie P Thomas, MBBS, FRCP, FASN, FAHA; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Answer

The management of metabolic alkalosis depends primarily on the underlying etiology and on the patient’s volume status. In the case of vomiting, administer antiemetics, if possible. If continuous gastric suction is necessary, gastric acid secretion can be reduced with H2-blockers or more efficiently with proton-pump inhibitors. In patients who are on thiazide or loop diuretics, the dose can be reduced or the drug can be stopped if appropriate. Alternatively, a potassium-sparing diuretic or acetazolamide can be added.

Acetazolamide also appears safe and effective in patients with metabolic alkalosis following treatment of respiratory acidosis from exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). [14, 15] One randomized trial found that the duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with COPD or obesity-hypoventilation syndrome with metabolic alkalosis was not significantly reduced in patients who received early administration of acetazolamide, compared with placebo. [16]  

However, a systematic review and meta-analysis of that trial and five other randomized controlled studies concluded that in patients with respiratory failure and metabolic alkalosis, therapy with acetazolamide or other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may have favorable effects on blood gas parameters. In mechanically ventilated patients, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor therapy may decrease the duration of mechanical ventilation. [17]

For a discussion of metabolic alkalosis in children, see Pediatric Metabolic Alkalosis. For a general review of acid-base regulation, see Metabolic Acidosis.


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