Which physical findings are characteristic of metabolic alkalosis?

Updated: Dec 10, 2020
  • Author: Christie P Thomas, MBBS, FRCP, FASN, FAHA; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Answer

The physical signs of metabolic alkalosis are not specific and depend on the severity of the alkalosis. Because metabolic alkalosis decreases ionized calcium concentration, signs of hypocalcemia (eg, tetany, Chvostek sign, Trousseau sign), change in mental status, or seizures may be present.

Physical examination is helpful to establish the cause of metabolic alkalosis. Important aspects of the physical examination include the evaluation of hypertension and of volume status.

Hypertension accompanies several causes of metabolic alkalosis (see Etiology). Volume status assessment includes evaluation of orthostatic changes in blood pressure and heart rate, mucous membranes, presence or absence of edema, skin turgor, weight change, and urine output. Volume depletion usually accompanies chloride-responsive alkalosis, while volume expansion accompanies chloride-resistant alkalosis.


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